Author Topic: Urdu Shaa,iree-3  (Read 570 times)

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Sarwar A. Raz

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-3
« Reply #15 on: July 27, 2013, 03:27:44 PM »
Urdu Shaa,iree-3
Sarwar A. Raz

Shaa,iree kyaa hai? Shaa,iree aur doosre arts (sangeet, nritya, sculpture, painting) kee tarah insaanee jazboN aur bhavanaa,oN ko zaahir karne kaa ek tareeqah hai. Shaa,iree aur sangeet aapas meN bohat qareeb haiN is liye keh donoN kaa ek bohat baRaa aur aham (important) hissaa un kaa rhythm hai. Sangeet kaa aadhaar hee rhythm par hai aur shaa,iree bhee rhythm ko jaa-bajaa istamaal kartee hai. Aaj kal western yaa English poetry kee naql meN ham bhee aazaad (blank yaa free) shaa,iree karne lage haiN lekin sach poochhiye to jo mazaa puraanee rhythmic shaa,iree meN hai who aazzzd shaa,iree meN naheeN hai. Urdu ke ek mash,hoor shaa,ir Munshi Brij Narayan “Chakbast” Luckhavee ne shaa,iree kee yooN tareef kee hai:

Shaa,iree kyaa hai? dilee jazbaat kaa izhaar hai
Dil agar bekaar hai to shaa,iree bekaar hai!

har zabaan kee shaa,iree kee tarah Urdu shaa,iree kee bhee bohat see qismeN haiN, jaise Ghazal, Nazm, Qit,ah, Rubaayee etc. bunyaadee usool sab ke ek hee haiN albattaa details meN kaheeN kaheeN thoRaa farq hai. ham yahaaN is waqt sirf Ghazal par baat kareN ge. aage chal kar agar zaroorat paRee to doosree qismoN par baat ho saktee hai.

Urdu meN bohat se lafz (shabd) aise haiN jin me kaheeN kaheeN kisee harf (akchhar) par koyee maatraa naheeN hotee hai. in ko saakin (isthaapit) yanee :sukoon waale: kehte haiN. Aam bol chaal meN is kaa dhyaan kam log rakhte haiN aur saakin harf ko bhee apnee taraf se maatraa lagaa kar adaa kar dete haiN lekin shaa,iree meN aisaa karne kee koyee gunjaa,ish naheeN hai. shaa,iree meN har lafz ko us ke saheeh talaffuz (uchhaaran) ke saath likhnaa aur bolnaa pare gaa. Hindi meN bhee aise shabd haiN. Khud :shabd: meN :ba: pa r koyee maatraa naheeN hai ya’nee :ba: saakin hai! kuchh aise lafz neeche likhe jaa rahe haiN aur un kaa Ghalat talaffuz yaa uchchaaran brackets (…… ) meN diyaa jaa rahaa hai. aage jab aise lafz aayeN ge to bataa diyaa jaaye gaa:

shehr (shehar) : city
zehr (zehar) : poison
lehr (lehar) : mauj
behr (behar) : ocean
hijr (hizr,hizar, hijar) : separation from one’s beloved
zikr (zikar) : bayaan
fikr (fikar) : soch
harf (haraf) : akchhar
lafz (lafaz) : shabd
mulk (mulak) : country
qabr (qabar, kabar) : grave

Urdu meN saakin lafzoN kee doosree taraf aise lafz haiN jin meN maatraa lagee hotee hai. maatraa se us akchhar meN movement paidaa ho jaatee hai jis par woh maatraa lagaayee jaaye. Urdu meN :movement: ko “harakat” kehte haiN. yeh wohee shabd hai jis ko ham aapas kee bol chaal meN :harkat: kehte haiN (ab ke aisee harkat kee to piTaayee ho jaaye gee!). aam bol chaal meN log :ra: ko saakin bolte haiN jab keh asl meN :ra: par chhoTee :a: kee maatraa hai aur is kaa saheeh talaffuz :harakat: hai. isee se lafz banaa hai :mutaharrik: (=mu-ta-har-rik) yanee “woh jis meN harakt ho”. aise lafz jin par koyee maatraa hotee hai Urdu meN :mutaharrik: kehlaate haiN. jaise lafz :narmee: meN na par chhoTee :a: kee maatraa hai, ra saakin hai (is meN koyee harakat naheeN hai) aur ma par baRee :ee: kee maatraa hai. Khud :lafz: meN la par chhoTee a kee maatraa hai aur f aur z (yeh donoN harf  Hindi meN naheeN haiN lekin Urdu meN haiN) donoN par koyee harakat yaa maatraa naheeN hai yanee donoN saakin haiN.

aap ko saakin aur mutaharrik terms samajhnee hoN gee aur alfaaz meN yeh samajhnaa ho gaa keh kaun saa harf saakin hai aur kaun saa mutaharrik.  is ke ba’d hee aap saheeh shaa,ire kar sakeN ge. Ghalat uchhaaran ke saath aap saheeh shaa,iree to kyaa saheeh tuk-bandee bhee naheeN kar sakte haiN. yeh kaam mehnat aur waqt  chaahataa hai.  ek aadh hafte meN naheeN aaye gaa. is par aap ko lagan aur shauq se kaam karnaa paRe gaa. mamoolee shaa,ire aap jald hee kar sakeN ge aur shaayad aap meN se beshtar dost usee se Khush ho jaayeN. lekin kuchh log aise zaroor  hoN ge jo apnee koshishoN ko aura age le jaanaa chaaheN ge. un ko thoRee see Urdu seekhnee ho gee jo aisaa mushkil kaam naheeN hai. mere kayee dost yeh kaam kar chuke haiN aur bohat Khush haiN. aap kaheN ge to maiN aisee kitaaboN kaa pataa bataa dooN gaa jo English kee madad se aasaan Urdu sikhaatee haiN. baaqee aap behtar jaante haiN.

ab apne discussion ko zaraa aura aage baRhaate haiN.

zabaan shabdoN se mil kar bantee hai. zabaanoN kee adaa,igee ke do tareeqe haiN:

(1)   kuchh zabaanoN meN kaheeN aawaaz natural hotee hai yanee us aawaaz ko adaa karne meN koyee Khaas koshish naheeN karnee paRtee aur kaheeN aisaa hotaa hai keh zabaan par zor de kar lafz adaa kiyaa jaataa hai. aisee adaa,igee ko Qualitative kehte haiN. German zabaan aisee hee ek zabaan hai.

(2)   kuchh zabaanoN meN adaa,igee ke liye chhoTee aur lambee yaa baRee aawaazeN istamaal hotee haiN. Hindi aur Urdu aisee zabaaneN haiN. doosre lafzoN meN yeh keh sakte haiN keh Hind/Urdu kaa har lafz chhoTee aur lambee aawaazoN ke combinations se adaa kiyaa jaa saktaa hai. is adaa,igee ko Quantitative kehte haiN.

ham sirf quantitative adaa,igee kee hee baat kareN kyoN keh hamaaree zabaan isee bunyaad par hai. hamaaree zabaan kee adaa,igee ke liye do qism kee aawaazeN ista’maal hotee haiN:

(1)   chhoTee aawaaz: ya’nee aisee aawaaz jis meN ek harf (akchhar) kee aawaaz sunaayee de.
 
(2)   lambee aawaaz : ya’nee aisee aawaaz jis meN do (2) harfoN kee aawaaz sunaayee  de.

in ke  ilaawah hamaaree zabaan meN kisee aur lambaayee kaa lafz istamaal naheeN hotaa. Jo lafz bohat lambe dikhaayee dete haiN un sab ko chhoTee aur lambee aawaazoN meN toRaa jaa saktaa hai.
har lafz yaa aawaaz kaa ek wazn (weight) hotaa hai. laf z yaa aawaazoN kaa wazn samajhne ke liye ek misaal ke taur par lafz “adaa,igee” ko dekhiye.

“adaa,igee” ko zabaan se adaa karte waqt sab se pehle ek chhoTee aawaaz “a” sunaayee detee hai. is ke ba’d ek lambee aawaaz “daa” kaanoN meN aatee hai, phir ek chhoTee aawaaz “i” sunte haiN aur sab se aaKhir meN ek lambee aawaaz “gee” sunaayee detee hai. is tarah “adaa,igee” ek chhoTee, ek baRee, phir ek chhoTee aur phir ek baRee aawaaz se mil kar banaa hai. in aawaazoN ko zaahir karne ke liye, likhne yaa dikhaane ke liye ham kuchh alaamat (nishaanee, symbol) likh sakte haiN jaise:

(a)   chhoTee aawaaz ke liye s aur lambee aawaaz ke liye l
 
(b)   chhoTee aawaaz ke liye 1 aur lambee aawaaz ke liye 2

ab ham “adaa,igee” kaa wazn in alaamatoN meN is tarah dikhaa sakte haiN:

adaa,igee = a + daa + i + gee
                = 1 – 2 – 1 - 2  yaa
                =  s – l – s – l
isee tarah lafz “sanjeedagee” meN pehle ek lambee aawaaz “san” sunaayee detee hai, phir ek aur lambee aawaaz “jee” kaan meN paRtee hai. is ke ba’e ek chhoTee aawaaz “da” sunaayee detee hai aur aaKhir me Nek lambee aawaaz “gee” sunte haiN. is tarah “sanjeedagee kaa wazn yooN ho gaa:

sanjeedagee = san + jee + da + gee
                    = 2 - 2 – 1 – 2  yaa
                    =  l – l – s – l

In namoonoN kee raushanee meN aap doosre lafzoN kaa wazn likh sakte haiN. yahaaN yeh bataanaa zarooree hai keh Urdu meN noon Ghunnaa kaa alag se koyee wazn naheeN hotaa hai. yanee kisee lafz kaa waz likhte waqt us ke noon Ghunnah ko ignore kar diyaa jaataa hai jaise who hai hee naheeN. is tarah “raNg” aur “rug” kaa ek hee wazn ho gaa, “aaNgan” aur “phaagun” kaa ek hee wazn ho gaa aur “taraNg, pataNg, alag” kaa ek hee wazn hai.

wazn kee kuchh aur misaaleN neech dee  jaa rahee haiN. baaqee aap Khud mashq keejiye kyoN keh har cheez kee tarah wazn aur taqtee meN bhee jitnee ziyaadah mashq ho gee utnee hee kaamyaabee (saphaltaa) ho gee:

deewaanaa = l- l- l
numaaish =  s- l- l
shaa,iree = l –s – l
karamfarmaayee (ya’nee mehrbaanee) = s- l- l- l- l
ghar kee murGhee daal baraabar = l – l – l – l – l – s – s – l – l

aaKhiree (ghar kee murGhee----) missal aap ko uljhan meN shaayad Daal de! sochiye keh is fiqre kaa wazn maiN ne aisaa kyoN likhaa hai. dekheN is baat ko aap Khud solve kar sakte haiN keh naheeN. aapas meN baat cheet keejiye, Khud sochiye. yeh baat aage in lekhoN meN kholee jaaye gee.

ab yeh maloom ho gayaa keh wazn kee alaamatoN (symbols) ko istamaal karne ke liye ham ko lafzoN ke TukRe karne hoN ge kyoN keh zabaan aisee hee TukRoN se banee hai. aap dekheN ge keh koyee lekh paRhte waqt aawaaz apnaa ruKh (dishaa, direction) baar baar badaltee hai. zabaan ke ek moR se doosre moR tak adaa,igee kaa ek TukRaa hotaa hai. phir wahaaN se agle moR tak nayaa TukRaa maanaa jaaye gaa. ham in TukRoN ko un kee lambaayee ke hisaab se alaamatoN 1-2 yaa s-l se dikhaa sakte haiN. is kee misaaleN dekhiye. aap notice kareN ge keh lafz yaa fiqre meN jitney TukRe hoN ge un se ek kam moR.  agar kisee lafz ke teen TukRe haiN to us meN zabaan ke do (2) moR hoN ge, paanch TukRe haiN to chaar moR etc:

idhar aa = i-dhar-aa = 1-2-2 = s-l-l
aa jaa = aa-jaa = 2-2 = l-l
kal dekhaa jaaye gaa = kal-de-khaa-jaa-ye-gaa = 2-2-2-2-2-2 = l-l-l-l-l-l-l
kidhar jaa rahaa hai = ki-dhar-jaa-ra-haa-hai = 1-2-2-1-2-2 = s-l-l-s-l-l
aNdehraa hai = aN-dhe-raa-hai = 1-2-2-2 = s-l-l-l
ghar kaa diyaa to jalaa le = ghar-kaa-di-yaa-to-ja-laa-le =2-2-1-2-2-1-2-2 = l-l-s-l-l-s-l-l
jawaanee kee raateN = ja-waa-nee-kee-raa-teN = 1-2-2-2-2-2 = s-l-l-l-l-l
muraadoN ke din = mu-raa-doN-ke-din = 1-2-2-2-2 = s-l-l-l-l
Rashmi Kavita kee behen hai = Rash-mee-Ka-vi-taa-kee-be-hen-hai = 2-2-1-1-2-2-1-2-2 = l-l-s-s-l-l-s-l-l

abhee ham ne jo kiyaa is ko :lafz kaa wazn bataanaa: kehte haiN. yeh aage taqtee meN kaam aaye gaa. ab sawaal uThtaa hai keh “wazn” kis ko kehte haiN aur us ko kaise nikaalte aur bataate  haiN aur us kee kyaa ahmiyat (mahattva) hai? ham oopar keh chuke haiN keh Urdu aur Hindi quantitative zabaaneN haiN. donoN ke saare alfaaz chhoTee aur lambee aawaazoN ke muKhtalif combinations se dikhaaye jaa sakte haiN. oopar yeh 1-2 aur s-l kee madad se dikhaayaa gayaa hai. 1, 2 aur s, l lafzoN ke wazn (weightage) kehlaate haiN. inheeN waznoN se aage ham sheroN kee behr banaayeN ge aur taqtee kareN ge jo keh in lekhoN kaa maqsad hai.

yahaaN do baateN samajhnaa zarooree haiN:

(1)   wazn har lafz kaa hotaa hai. chooN keh jumlaa (sentence), fiqraa (short sentence), misraa yaa sher lafzoN se mil kar bante haiN is liye in ke wazn bhee bataaye jaa sakte haiN. ya’nee woh nazm (kavitaa) ho yaa nasr (prose) ham us kaa wazn determine kar sakte haiN aur us kee bunyaad par us ko parakh sakte haiN. parakhne ke liye kuchh sharteN yaa rules aur qaa,ide zarooree haiN taa keh har aadamee ek hee set of rules ko istamall kare. yeh rules aage aayeN ge.

(2)   yeh zarooree naheeN hai keh ek lafz kaa yaa fiqre kaa jo wazn nasr (prose) meN ho wohee nazm (kavita) meN bhee ho! yeh baat ajeeb see lagtee hai lekin aap dekheN ge keh kabhee kabhee ek hee lafz kaa wazn nasr aur nazm meN muKhtalif ho saktaa hai.

oopar 1-2 aur s-l kaa jo wazn bataane kaa nizaam (system) ham ne istamaal kiyaa yeh bohat ibtidaayee (rudimentary) hai aur shaa,iree kee baareekiyaaN is se naheeN dikhaayee  jaa saktee haiN. shaa,iree kee taqtee meN yeh donoN nizaam 2-3 qadam chal kar ruk jaate haiN. jo log shaa,ire ke ilm-e-arooz (chhand viggyaan) se waaqif naheeN haiN un ko yeh baat ajeeb bhee lagtee hai aur Ghalat bhee. lekin jaisaa keh ham dekheN ge yeh nizaam apne applications meN bohat limited haiN aur jald hee ham ko kisee behtar nizaam kee talaash karnaa paRtee hai. 

Urdu meN “noon” (Hindi kaa na) do tarah se bolaa aur likhaa jaataa hai.

(1)   ek taraf aise lafz haiN jin meN “noon” kee aawaaz saaf sunaayee detee hai. jaise :namak, namkeen, eemaan, sammelan: meN noon kee aawaaz saaf aa rahee hai. is ko “noon kaa elaan karnaa” kehte haiN.
(2)   doosree taraf who lafz haiN jin meN “noon” kee aawaaz pooree tarah naheeN sunaayee detee bal keh naak se gungunaatee huyee sunaayee detee hai. jaise :maiN (=I), aNdheraa, umaNg, raNg, seeNg: meN “noon” kee gungunaatee huyee aawaaz sunaayee de rahee hai. is ko “noon Ghunnaa” kehte haiN. ham is ko Roman Urdu meN “N” se dikhaayeN ge.

yeh farq samajhnaa aur yaad rakhnaa bohat zarooree hai kyoN keh taqtee meN is ko bohat istamaal kiyaa jaaye gaa. Hindi meN noon Ghunnaa ko shaayad :na: ke neeche/oopar bindu lagaa kar dikhaate haiN. aap log behtar jaante haiN.

ab aap logoN se nivedan hai keh ab tak ke teenoN lekhoN ko achhee tarah samajh leN. koyee sawaal ho to poochh leN. is ke baGhair aage baRhnaa bekaar  ho gaa. so ab do teen hafte aap kaam kareN aur maiN bhee agle lekhoN kee taiyyaaree karooN! bohat jaldee ham asl kaam shuroo karne waale haiN.

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Rashmi

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-3
« Reply #16 on: July 27, 2013, 06:44:05 PM »
aadrniya sarwar ji


aapka 3rd lekh dekhte hi behad achha laga. or jab sara lekh paDa to or bhi achha laga . bahut baariki se bahut visthaar se samjhaate ho aap, har pahloo ko--- aaj aap ne jo gyaan hum sab ke saath baanta,paRhte paRhte bahut si guthhiyaN suljhati gaii.aap ne shayri ki jitani bhi kisameiN bataai aage chal ke hum har subject aap se isii tarah visthaar se janana chaahenge...or ek baar fir se is lekh ke liye aapka shukriya ada karna chaahti hooN ji khush rahiye isii tarah humaara disha-nirdeshan karte rahiye
Rashmi Sharma

gooDe akkhar ,fatti sukki
adiyo meri gaachi mukki
sukke hanjhu akkhaN waale
haaDa! akkhar mooloN kaale

Kavita Negi

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-3
« Reply #17 on: July 27, 2013, 07:16:20 PM »
Namskaar Sarwar ji,

aapka ye lekh padhkar kaafi uljhane suljh gayi, jaise jabaan ki adaeeigi ko bakhubi dhang se samjhaya hai aapne. Lafzo ka wazan, shaayri ki kisme, har cheez ko bahut hi kushalta se hamare samne prastut kiya hai. Aasha karti hu meri hi tarah sabki uljhane sulajh gayi hogi. Aapka dil se dhanyawad. Aise hi aage bhi samjhaate rahiyega. Khush rahiyee

hamdam

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-3
« Reply #18 on: July 28, 2013, 02:44:32 AM »
Man,niyye Sarwar ji ,
Aaj subah 2 utha to aapka article dekha aur pura 1ghanta baith
kar use para ,bahut  anand aya  aur ab main yakeen ke saath kah
sakta hun ki takti  karne mein bahut aasani hogi mujhe.

Aaj sahi mayne mein shai ree mein adaygee ke kya mayne hain
samajh mein aya. Lafzon ke ucharan  mein matra ki importance se
sakin aur mutahrik ka fark pata chala. Ucharan se shadon ko tukron
mein batna aur awaz kaise ek mor se doosre mor jaati hai
maloom hua.

Aur akhir mein noon ki illustration se meri ek bahut bari confusion
door kar di.

Janab tahe dil se shukriya aapka.

Sanjay Sehgal


AnjAAn!!!

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-3
« Reply #19 on: July 29, 2013, 01:48:41 AM »
Sarwar saahib ko khaadim ka aadaab
Poore lekh ko Tafseeli taur par padha. Itna kaargar lekh maine shayad hi kabhi padha ho shaairi ko lekar. Aapka tahe dil se shukrguzaar huN aapki is lekh par ki gayi mehnat ko lekar.
Bahar haal mujhe quantitative zabaanoN aur qualitative zabaanoN meN farq samajh nahiN aaya. Pahli baar jana is baare meN to curiosity badhi hui hai. Plz explain.

Dhanyawaad
MaiN tumheN paanch baje call karuN
Kah ke mujh ko ghadi se baandh diya

Sarwar A. Raz

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-3
« Reply #20 on: July 29, 2013, 04:31:00 AM »
Sarwar saahib ko khaadim ka aadaab
Poore lekh ko Tafseeli taur par padha. Itna kaargar lekh maine shayad hi kabhi padha ho shaairi ko lekar. Aapka tahe dil se shukrguzaar huN aapki is lekh par ki gayi mehnat ko lekar.
Bahar haal mujhe quantitative zabaanoN aur qualitative zabaanoN meN farq samajh nahiN aaya. Pahli baar jana is baare meN to curiosity badhi hui hai. Plz explain.

Dhanyawaad
Anjaan saaheb: aadaab!

mere paas itnaa ilm naheeN hai keh maiN zabaanoN par guftgoo kar sakooN. Urdu par baat ho gee aur usee se hameN matlab hai. Vikas saaheb ne poochhaa hai keh in zabaanoN ko Urdu meN kyaa kehte haiN. Qualitative ko Urdu meN Iqdaaree (qadr yaa qeemat waalee) aur Quantitative ko Miqdaaree (miqdaar yaa tol waalee) kehte haiN. aglaa lekh aane meN kaafee din haiN. aap sab dostoN ko pehle waale 3 lekh achhee tarah se samajh lene chaahiyeN. us ke ba'd hee kaam aage baRh saktaa hai.

Sarwar A. Raz

aqsh

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-3
« Reply #21 on: September 01, 2013, 01:47:36 PM »
Sarwarji  bahut achcha laga aapka yeh lekh padhkar aur bahut saari baaton ka ilm bhi haasil hua.. jazak allah