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Sarwar A. Raz

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Urdu Shaa,iree-2
« on: July 16, 2013, 11:45:13 PM »
Urdu Shaa,iree-2

lekhoN ke is silsileh ko aage baRhaate huwe aaj ham kuchh aur bunyaadee baateN kareN ge. shuroo shuroo meN agar bunyaad mazboot ho jaaye to us par khaRee imaarat (building) bhee mazboot ho gee. yeh shuroo ke qadam mushkil hoN ge aur apne paRhne waaloN se mehnat, shauq aur lagan chaaheN ge. in baatoN ke mushkil hone kaa yeh matlab naheeN hai keh aap in ko kar naheeN sakeN ge! agar aisaa hotaa to maiN un ko yaaN hargiz nah likhtaa. maiN aise kayee dostoN ko jaantaa hooN jinhoN ne apne shauq se mamoolee Urdu itnee seekh lee hai keh woh kaafee achhee shaa,iree kar lete haiN, kuchh to Urdu paRh lete haiN aur kuchh likh bhee lete haiN. ek dost ne to yeh kamaal kiyaa keh woh ab Urdu ke ba'd Farsee seekh rahe haiN aur yeh sab woh haiN jin kee maadree zabaan (maatra bhaashaa) Hindi hai! aap bhee aisaa kar sakte haiN.

adabee (literary) Urdu aur adabee Hinde meN kuchh bunyaadee farq haiN. aapas kee bol-chaal meN aur bazaar meN to har tarah kaam chal jaataa hai lekin shaa,iree meN ham aisaa naheeN kar sakte haiN. shaa,iree meN ham adabee zabaan likhne par majboor haiN. is kaa sabab (kaaran) aahitah aahistah aage saamne aa jaaye gaa. Urdu aur Hindi ke isee bunyaadee farq par yahaaN kuchh baateN kee jaayeN gee.

(1) Urdu kee kayee aawaazeN Hindi meN naheeN haiN jab keh shaa,iree meN yeh aam taur se istamaal hotee haiN. woh aawaazeN neeche dee jaa rahee haiN:

Kha: jaise Khatm, aaKhir, Kharaab (Hindi meN kha ke neeche bindu lagaa kar is ko dikhaayaa jaataa hai.)
za : jaise laazim, hazm, zaahir (Hindi meN ja ke neeche bindu lagaa kar is ko dikhaayaa jaataa hai)
Gha : jaise baGhair, Ghaafil (ignorant), aaGhaa (maalik), (Hindi meN ga ke neeche bindu lagaa kar is ko dikhaate haiN)
qa : jaise qaa,im, qaraar, iqraar (Hindi meN ka ke neeche bindu lagaa kar dikhaate haiN)

in aawaazoN kee adaa,igee kee practice zarooree hai warnah mazaa Kharaab ho jaaye gaa. maiN is ko ek haNsee kee baat se saaf kartaa hooN. ek lafz (shabd) hai "jeenaa" (to live) aur ek hai "zeenaa" (seeRhee). ek mushaa,ire (kavee sammelan) meN ek saahab apnee Ghazal sunaa rahe the. unhoN ne lahak kar kahaa:

woh jeenaa bhee koyee jeenaa hai!

saaree mehfil phaRak gayee keh ab zindagee ke baare meN koyee philosophical aur gehree baat kahee jaaye gee jis se zindagee kee haqeeqat (real meaning) kaa pataa chale gaa! shaa,ir saaheb ne jhoom kar sher is tarah Khatm kiyaa:

woh jeenaa bhee koyee jeenaa hai
jis jeene pe koyee chaRh nah sake!

ab aap hee sochiye keh baat kahaaN se kahaaN poNhach gayee!  :D   so in aawaazoN ko Theek se adaa karnaa ho gaa!!!

(2) Urdu meN ek see aawaaz ke liye kayee harf (akchhar) istamll hote haiN. asl meN in sab kee aawaaz meN zaraa zaraa saa farq hai lekin ek aam Urdu waalaa (is meN shaa,ir bhee shaamil haiN!) is farq ko naheeN jaantaa aur nah hee is ko apnee bol-chaal meN istamaal kartaa hai. Urdu shaa,iree meN to aise harf likhnaa zarooree haiN lekin Hindi meN Ghazal likhte waqt ham ek see aawaazoN ke liye ek hee harf likheN ge:

(a) za kee aawaaz ke liye Urdu men chaar (4) harf haiN. ham yahaaN in sab aawaazoN ko :z: se adaa kareN ge jaise :aawaaz, iztiraab, zaahir, raaz:

(b) ta kee aawaaz ke liye Urdu meN do (2) akchhar haiN. ham yahaaN is ko :t: se likheN ge jaise taar (wire), taur (way, method)

(c) sa kee aawaaz ke liye Urdu meN teen (3) akchhar haiN. ham is ko :s: se adaa kareN ge jaise :asar, aasaan:

(d) ha kee aawaaz ke liye Urdu meN teen (3) letters haiN. ham is ko :h: se adaa kareN ge jaise :haar, aah, haram, bheetar, ghaar:

is ke saath pichhle lekh meN diye gaye likhne ke usool aur shaamil kar leN. maiN Roman Urdu/Hindi yahaaN inhee usooloN par likhooN gaa.

(3) aap Ghazal likheN ge to Urdu ke mamoolee shabd jo ham rozaanaa istamaal karte haiN aur kuchh doosre shabd bhee likhne hoN ge kyoN keh apnee bhaawanaa ko adaa karne ke liye aisaa karnaa zarooree ho gaa. agar Urdu se bilkul parhez kiyaa jaaye gaa to woh Ghazal naheeN kuchh aur ho gee jis meN koyee harj naheeN hai. haaN aap ko sochnaa hai keh aap kyaa seekhnaa aur likhnaa chaahate haiN. maiN ne isee laRee meN dostoN ke likhe huwe Khat dekhe to bohat se aise shabd dikhaayee diye jo Ghalat haiN. samjhaane ke liye maiN unheN aur un kee durust shakl ko neeche likh rahaa hooN taa keh aap ko apne kaam kaa andaazaa ho. yeh ho saktaa ho keh aap yeh sab nah karnaa chaaheN to mujh ko bataa deN taa keh maiN apne lekh band kar dooN. zaahir hai keh agar itnee mehnat koyee nah chaahe to phir lekh nah likhnaa hee achhaa hai:

kafiya (qaafiya)
zazbe (jazbe)
vakt (waqt)
chiraag (chiraaGh)
dikkat (diqqat)
tarika (tareeqa)
bekarar (beqaraar)
izaazat (ijaazat)
manjil (manzil)
kayada (qaa,idaa)
baaki (baaqee)
jubaan (zabaan)
tehzeev (tehzeeb)

yeh likhne se kisee kee buraayee yaa criticism naheeN hai. Sirf itnaa dikhaanaa hai keh aap ko likhte waqt Urdu/Hindi kaa farq nazar meN rakhnaa ho gaa.

(4) Urdu meN akchharoN (harfoN, huroof :harf kaa plural) kee adaa,igee do (2) tarah se hotee hai.
(a)  harf aisaa ho saktaa hai keh us par koyee maatraa nah ho yanee us meN koyee movement (harakat) nah ho. aise harf ko "saakin" (sthaapit?) kehte haiN. shaa,iree meN saakin harf ko saakin hee likhnaa aur bolnaa paRe gaa warnah sher kaa meter Ghalat ho jaaye gaa aur shaa,iree bekaar. misaal (example) ke taur par lafz (shabd) "zehr" (poison) meN :ha: saakin hai aur is par koyee maatraa naheeN hai. is ko "zehr" paRhnaa ho gaa. agar "zehar" kaheN ge jaisaa keh aam bol chaal meN bohat se log kehte haiN to sher meter-baahar ho jaaye gaa. yeh miSra dekhiYe. is kaa meter (wazn) us ke neeche likh diyaa gayaa hai (1=chhoTee aawaaz; 2= lambee aawaaz):

zehr deN, is peh yeh taakeed keh peenaa ho gaa
zehr deN is/ peh yeh taa kee/ d keh pee naa/ ho gaa
21    22 /    11 22/                 11 22 /            22

agar :zehar: likheN ge to is kaa meter :22: ho gaa aur misre kaa wazn (meter) bigaR jaaye gaa.

doosre aise hee saakin harf waale shabd jo bohat se log Ghalat paRhte aur bolte haiN neeche likhe jaa rahe haiN. in kaa Ghalat talaffuz (uchchaaran) brackets meN de diyaa gayaa hai:

shehr (shehar) : city
lehr (Lehar) : wave
qabr (qabar) : grave
lafz (lafaz) : shabd
harf (haraf) : akchhar
behr (behar) : ocean (shaa,iree kaa meter)
faKhr (faKhar) : shaan
ashk (ashak) : aaNsoo
arz (araz) : nivedan
farq (faraq) : antar, difference

(5) aage baRhne se pehle yahaaN do (2) alfaaz (shabdoN) kaa farq samjhaanaa zarooree hai. pehlaa lafz hai "sahee". ham sab is ko jaante haiN aur hameshah hee bolte haiN jaise "achhaa to yooN hee sahee". yeh lafz Urdu aur Hindi donoN meN ek saa hee hai.

dooaraa lafz hai "saheeh" jis ke aaKhir meN :ha: hai. is kaa matlab hai :durust, Theek, correct: jaise "yeh baat bilkul saheeh hai". agar yahaaN :sahee: kaheN ge to Ghalat ho gaa. Urdu waale bhee bol-chaal meN :saheeh: ko :sahee: hee keh jaate haiN lekin shaa,iree meN aur Urdu likhne meN aisaa naheeN karte bal keh :saheeh: kehte aur likhte haiN. aap ko yeh farq samjhnaa hai aur is ko istamaal bhee karnaa hai.

(6) ab Roman Urdu kee maatraa,oN kaa samajhnaa hai kyoN keh yahaaN saaraa kaam Roman Urdu meN hee ho gaa:

chhoTee :a: kee maatraa :a: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise  "ab, jab, kam, Dar" waGhairah
baRee :a: kee maatraa :aa: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise "jaate, raateN, saamne, kaaran"
chhoTee :e: kee maatraa :i: se dikhaayee jaaye gee , jaise "is, idhar, zaalim, naadim"
baRee :ee: kee maatraa :ee: se dikhaayee jaaye gee , jaise :garmee, laRkee, hakeem, namkeen"
chhoTee :u: kee maatraa :u: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise "udhar, madhur, dum (tail), phulkee"
baRe :u: kee maatraa  :oo: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise "oopar, dhool, bharpoor, fuzool"
chhoTee :ou: kee maatraa "o": se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise "Dor (thread),  mor (peacock), bol"
baRee :au: kee maatraa :au: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise  "aur  (and), dauR, naukar"

(7) Urdu meN kayee alfaaz ko joR kar combinations banaa lete haiN jin ko "tarkeeb" (plural: taraakeeb) kehte haiN. tarkeeb banaane kaa ek aam tareeqaa yeh hai keh do alfaaz (shabdoN) ke beech meN "e" lagaa dete haiN jo :kaa, ke, kee: ke manee rakhtaa hai. yeh Farsi kaa tareeqaa hai. do chaar misaaleN yahaaN dee jaatee haiN.

mausam-e-bahaar = bahaar kaa mausam
raaz-e-dil = dil kaa raaz (bhed)
mehfil-e-Ghazal = Ghazal kee mehfil yaa sabhaa
jaam-e-sharaab = sharaab kaa jaam (piyaalaa)

aisee taraakeeb kee shart Urdu meN yeh hai keh donoN alfaaz Farsee yaa Arabee ke hone chaahiyeN kyoN keh tarkeeb banaane kaa tareeqaa Farsee se liyaa gayaa hai. Hindi meN is shart ko Dheelaa karne kee zaroorat ho gee aur ham is par phir baat kareN ge. is shart kaa matlab yeh hai keh neeche dee huweee tarkeebeN saheeh naheeN maanee jaayeN gee:

din-e-Holi = Holi kaa din (donoN alfaaz Hindi ke haiN, so durust naheeN maanee jaa saktee)
maah-e-saawan = saawan kaa maheenaa (maah Farsee kaa hai aur saawan Hindi kaa so naa-durust  hai!)
pul-e-daryaa = nadee kaa pul (pul Hindi hai aur daryaa Farsee so naa -durust)

(8) Urdu meN do alfaaz ko ikaTThaa karne ke liye un ke beech meN :o: lagaa dete haiN,jaise. is :o: kaa matlab :aur: hotaa hai, jaise :

gul-o-bulbul = gulaab aur bulbul
subh-o-sham = subh aur sham
jaam-o-sharaab = jaam aur sharaab

yahaaN bhee wohee shart hai keh donoN lafz yaa to Farsee ke hoN ge yaa Arabee ke. is tarah neeche dee huyee tarkeebeN Ghalat hoN gee:

jheel-o-daryaa
shaagird-o-guroo
peR-o-phal

yahaaN yeh lekh Khatm hotaa hai.

(baaqee aa,indah)
=============

Sarwar A. Raz

« Last Edit: July 17, 2013, 12:11:43 AM by Sarwar A. Raz »

Rashmi

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-2
« Reply #1 on: July 17, 2013, 09:56:24 AM »
aadrniya Sarwar ji
  aaj aapka doosara lekh paRha   .bahut shukargujaar hooN aapki .aapne bahut hi umda tareeke se shabdoN ki barikiyaaN humeiN sikhaai..... aap ke lekh shayrii sikhane ki chah rakhane waloN ke liye behtreeN guide sidh honge..... itne achhe se or baariki se ek ek baat aap samaksh rakhte haiN ke ek aasha ki kiran jagti hai sach meiN hum bhi kuchh seekh payenge....bolne ka sahi tarika aap ne bataaiya jo ke aksar hum ye galti karte hain......... aasha hai  bahut hi shayrii ka shouq rakhane waaloN ko aapke thread kamyaabi dilwaayenge shukriya ji aapki aagaami post ka intzaar rahega or is post pe amal hum shuru kar denge ji ...........shukriya  ji
Rashmi Sharma

gooDe akkhar ,fatti sukki
adiyo meri gaachi mukki
sukke hanjhu akkhaN waale
haaDa! akkhar mooloN kaale

Kavita Negi

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-2
« Reply #2 on: July 18, 2013, 12:37:28 PM »
Aadarniye Sarwar Jee,
bilkul, mai sehmat hu Rashmi di ji se ke  aapka ye lekh shayari seekhne walo ke liye bahut madadgaar rahega. Apna keemati samye dene ke liye bahut bahut shukriya. Aise hi hamari madad ke liye aage bhi likhte rahiyega. Ek baar fir se bahut bahut shukriya.

Rajneesh

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-2
« Reply #3 on: July 18, 2013, 12:57:18 PM »
shukriya sarwar sahab ki aapne waqt aur ilm ham logon ke liye diya .. aapke agle lekh ka intezaar rahega.
:)

hamdam

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-2
« Reply #4 on: July 18, 2013, 03:32:33 PM »
Sarvar Sahab Namaskar aur Addaab,

Apka lekh para , sach maniye bahut anand aya . Jis bareeki se aap ne pronunciation ke bare me likha aur hindi urdu ko differentiate kiya  , bahut hi analytical tha and bilkul samajh mein aa gaya ek dum.


kafiya (qaafiya)
zazbe (jazbe)
vakt (waqt)
chiraag (chiraaGh)
dikkat (diqqat)
tarika (tareeqa)
bekarar (beqaraar)
izaazat (ijaazat)
manjil (manzil)
kayada (qaa,idaa)
baaki (baaqee)
jubaan (zabaan)
tehzeev (tehzeeb)


chhoTee :a: kee maatraa :a: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise  "ab, jab, kam, Dar" waGhairah
baRee :a: kee maatraa :aa: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise "jaate, raateN, saamne, kaaran"
chhoTee :e: kee maatraa :i: se dikhaayee jaaye gee , jaise "is, idhar, zaalim, naadim"
baRee :ee: kee maatraa :ee: se dikhaayee jaaye gee , jaise :garmee, laRkee, hakeem, namkeen"
chhoTee :u: kee maatraa :u: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise "udhar, madhur, dum (tail), phulkee"
baRe :u: kee maatraa  :oo: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise "oopar, dhool, bharpoor, fuzool"
chhoTee :ou: kee maatraa "o": se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise "Dor (thread),  mor (peacock), bol"
baRee :au: kee maatraa :au: se dikhaayee jaaye gee, jaise  "aur  (and), dauR, naukar"

yeh do sections bahut achche lage.....

Bus aise hi gyan humari jholi mein daalte rahiye , badi inaayat hogi...

With best regds

Sanjay Sehgal

AahnaA

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-2
« Reply #5 on: July 23, 2013, 06:20:08 PM »
sarwar bhai salaam

bahot hi umdaa tarike se aapne ye mushkil chizen samjhai hain...  yunhi samjhate rahiye sikhate rahiye  aur hum sab aapke anmol ghyaan se kuch sikhte jayenge...


aqsh

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Re: Urdu Shaa,iree-2
« Reply #6 on: September 01, 2013, 01:04:27 PM »
Sarwar ji bahut bahut bahut shukriya aapka.. aapke lekh se bahut bareekiyan samajh mein aayi... aage bhi aise hi saath dijiyega...